# 22. Phrases, Cadences, and Harmonic Function

Each exercise in the table below shows the bass line, soprano line, and chord progression of an imaginary cadence. Consider the provided information, then identify the type of cadence (PAC, IAC, HC, or DC) represented by the voice-leading information.

 S: $\hat2$ – $\hat1$ B: $\hat5$ – $\hat1$ V – I
PAC
 S: $\hat4$ – $\hat3$ B: $\hat7$ – $\hat1$ V6/5 – i

IAC
 S: $\hat6$ – $\hat5$ B: $\hat4$ – $\hat5$ IV – V

HC
 S: $\hat2$ – $\hat1$ B: $\hat5$ – $\hat1$ V7 – I

PAC
 S: $\hat2$ – $\hat1$ B: $\hat7$ – $\hat1$ V6 – I

IAC
 S: $\hat4$ – $\hat3$ B: $\hat5$ – $\hat6$ V7 – vi

DC
 S: $\hat2$ – $\hat1$ B: $\hat4$ – $\hat3$ V4/2 – i6

IAC
 S: $\hat1$ – $\hat7$ B: $\hat4$ – $\hat5$ ii6/5 – V

HC
 S: $\hat7$ – $\hat1$ B: $\hat5$ – $\hat1$ V – i

PAC
 S: $\hat7$ – $\hat1$ B: $\hat5$ – $\hat3$ V7 – i6

IAC
 S: $\hat2$ – $\hat1$ B: $\hat5$ – $\hat6$ V – VI

DC

## Resolving Dominant Chords Authentically and Deceptively

Each of the exercises below shows a dominant chord (either V or V7) in SATB format. Identify each chord by writing the appropriate Roman numeral on the line below the staff. Then, resolve each dominant to the chord represented by the given Roman numeral, following standard voice-leading conventions as closely as possible. Finally, identify the type of cadence (PAC, IAC, or DC) represented by each progression.

## Melody Completion

Each of the melodies below consists of two short phrases. The phrase endings have been left blank. Compose an ending for each phrase to match the given cadence label. (Note: There is more than one correct answer for each exercise.)

## Roman Numeral Realization

Each of the following exercises consists of a starting chord in SATB voicing and a progression of Roman numerals. Complete each progression by filling in the remaining notes in all four voices, following standard voice-leading conventions as closely as possible. (Hint: Start with the bass line, making sure each note corresponds with the scale degree indicated by the Roman numeral and figured bass.)

## Melody Harmonization

Harmonize each of following melodies using only tonic and dominant harmonies (i, V, V7, and their inversions). Start by selecting a chord to harmonize each soprano note and writing the appropriate Roman numeral on the line below the lower staff. Follow standard voice-leading conventions as closely as possible and don’t forget to proofread your work once you’re done. Additionally, make sure to end the progression with a perfect authentic cadence using a dominant seventh chord (V7 to i). The first chord of each progression has been provided for you.

Identify the tonality of each passage below by writing the key name on the line provided. Then, identify each indicated cadence by writing its type (PAC, IAC, HC, or DC) in the boxes below the staves. For authentic and deceptive cadences, write in the Roman numerals for the cadential dominant and tonic chords, circling and identifying any nonharmonic tones. For half cadences, write in the Roman numeral for the cadential dominant. Focus mainly on the cadences; you do not need to write in a complete Roman numeral analysis.

Maria Barthélemon, 3 Hymns and 3 Anthems (Op. 3), Hymn No. 1 “Thou Crownest the Year with thy Goodness,” mm. 87-104

Ignacio Cervantes, Danzas Cubanas, “La Cortesana,” mm. 1-16

Sophia Dussek, Variations on “Ah! que l’amour,” mm. 1-16

José Maurício Nunes Garcia, Bendito e louvado seja No. 1, mm. 36-42 & 46-56

Manuel Saumell Robredo, Contradanzas para Piano, “La Tedezco,” mm. 1-16

Ignatius Sancho, 12 Country Dances, 3. “Ruffs and Rhees”

Ignatius Sancho, Minuets, etc., Air for German Flute, Violin and Bass

Franziska Lebrun, Violin Sonata in C major (Op. 2, No. 4), II Rondo-Allegro Assai, mm. 1-16

Maria Agata Szymanowska, 6 Minuets, No. 5, Trio 1, mm. 1-16

Sophia Maria Westenholz, Theme and 12 Variations (Op. 2), mm. 1-20