# 1. Introduction to Rhythm and Meter

## Converting Notes to Rests

Re-write each of the following exercises, converting notes to rests of equivalent duration. Take your time and write neatly, lining up each rest with the given note above it. (Hint: If you are unsure of where the rests should be placed vertically, look for clues in the following set of exercises.) Don’t worry about the symbols and numbers at the beginning of each exercise for now. Those will be discussed in the following chapters.

## Converting Rests to Notes

Re-write each of the following exercises, converting rests to notes of equivalent duration. Take your time and write neatly, lining up each note with the given rest above it. (Hint: If you are unsure of where the notes should be placed vertically, look for clues in the preceding set of exercises.) Don’t worry about the symbols and numbers at the beginning of each exercise for now. Those will be discussed in the following chapters.

## Replacing Tied Notes with Dotted Notes

Each of the following exercises contains several tied notes. Some of these tied notes are equivalent in duration to a single dotted note, others are not. Rewrite each rhythm, replacing tied notes with dotted notes whenever possible. For instances in which there is no equivalent dotted duration, rewrite the tied notes and draw a box around them. In the example provided, a quarter note tied to an eighth note is replaced with a dotted quarter note and an eighth note tied to a sixteenth note is replaced with a dotted eighth note. There is no single dotted duration equivalent to a half note tied to an eighth note, so a box is drawn around the original notation.

## Identifying Meter

A recording of each of the following excerpts is included in the appendix of the online version of this book. Listen to each recording while following along with the score and determine what type of meter is present: duple, triple, or quadruple. If you are having difficulty, try listening to the version with an added click track.

Sophia Dussek, Sonata in C minor (Op. 2, No. 3), III. Rondo Allegro, mm. 1-16

Without click track:

With click track:

Type of meter:

duple

Elisabetta de Gambarini, Harpsichord Sonata in C major (Op. 1, No. 5), III. Spiritoso assai, mm. 1-13

Without click track:

With click track:

Type of meter:

Joseph Bologne Saint-Georges, Sonata for Flute and Harp in Eb major, II. Tempo Minuetto, mm. 1-24

Without click track:

With click track:

Type of meter:

triple

## Composing Short Rhythms

Compose short rhythms using common note durations (e.g., quarter notes, half notes, eighth notes, etc.). Each exercise specifies the type of meter (number of beats) and the total duration of each bar. Perform your each exercise out loud while tapping the beat to make sure your rhythm feels natural in the given meter. (Don’t worry about the symbols at the beginning of each bar. These will be explained in later chapters.)

meter type: quadruple / bar duration: four quarter notes

meter type: duple / bar duration: two quarter notes

meter type: triple / bar duration: three quarter notes

meter type: duple / bar duration: two half notes