Main Body

Chapter 7: Resources

Abstract: In this chapter, the differing perspectives of the functional assessment process will be summarized. Additional examples and blank templates will be shared to help broaden the reader’s approach to functional assessment.

Focus Questions:

  • What templates and resources are available to use when attempting to replicate this skill based approach to learning functional assessment?

The authors of Instruction in Functional Assessment hope that this text will equip learners with the knowledge and skills to perform functional assessment. One of the unique features of this book is the integration of both psychological and educational perspectives embedded into the content and skills of FA. Such an endeavor can be challenging as the two fields utilize different vocabularies and often alternative perspectives in viewing and intervening with students with challenging behaviors. The following Table may help illustrate the vocabulary differences among professionals in psychology and those with educational backgrounds.

 General Description
 Behavior is often defined as the way in which one behaves or acts with others. This can be an action or a reaction. Behavior is also a method of controlling yourself, your actions, and your responses.
Descriptive Words Used in Psychology  Descriptive Words Used in Education
Antecedents and consequences of behavior, negative reinforcement, positive reinforcement, conditions, clinical settings, clients  Attention seeking, conduct, demeanor, deportment, acting out, learning environment, reacting
For the purposes of this book, we have chosen to take an inclusive and interdisciplinary approach. We view challenging behaviors as the focus of professionals’ analysis and intervention. Clients or students are not problems, but rather coping as best as possible in their environment. Most often these challenging behaviors serve a communication function. These individuals need interdisciplinary professionals who assist them and their families to effectively learn new desirable behavior. This blended, interdisciplinary approach is person centered and proactively supports the family and the child using effective functional assessment processes and approaches.

The following materials may be helpful either as secondary sources of information for teaching FA, or as performance-based resources that go further in depth in developing students’ FA knowledge and skills.

Blank Templates

Functions of Behavior Template

List some examples of challenging behaviors that serve the function indicated in the cells below.

To Avoid/Escape To Obtain
Sensory/automatic  

 

Social  

 

 Tangibles  

 

Functionally-equivalent replacement behaviors To Avoid/Escape To Obtain
 Sensory/automatic
 Social
 Tangibles

Practicing Observation Systems Template

Frequency: Count the number of times the target behavior occurs during a pre-determined amount of time (i.e. in a 1 min period of time, the student lifted his eyes from the paper and looked out the window 3 times).

Target Behavior:

__________________________________________________________________________

Start Time:

__________________________________________________________________________

End Time:

__________________________________________________________________________

Frequency Count:

__________________________________________________________________________

Duration Recording: This is the amount of time the target behavior lasts from beginning to end of behavior (i.e., the amount of time a tantrum lasts without interference). This recording is done over a longer period of time (i.e., during all of reading time or over one study period repeating the recording every time the target behavior occurs).

Target Behavior:

__________________________________________________________________________

Start Time:

__________________________________________________________________________

End Time:

__________________________________________________________________________

Total Duration:

__________________________________________________________________________

Latency Recording: This is the amount of time before a target behavior starts after a cue or prompt to begin is given (i.e., the teacher says “Begin”) and the amount of time before a student actually starts working. This recording is done over a longer period of time (i.e., during all of reading time or over one study period), repeating the recording every time the target behavior occurs.

Target Behavior:

__________________________________________________________________________

Start Time:

__________________________________________________________________________

End Time:

__________________________________________________________________________

Total Latency:

__________________________________________________________________________

Interval Recording: These are preset intervals of time (i.e., 1 min intervals for 15 min). Within each interval, a mark (x) occurs if the behavior happens at any time in the interval.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Target Behavior:

__________________________________________________________________________

Start Time:

__________________________________________________________________________

End Time:

__________________________________________________________________________

Developed by M. Fallon (2010) for use in EDI 413, Introduction to Special Education, College at Brockport, State University of New York.

Practice Activity for Written FA Skills

Directions: Complete the following based on an initial observation of a child and his/her behavior in a learning environment.

Current Target Behavior: Johnny will increase by 50% his ability to write in his journal for 10 min each day.

What do you need to know?

__________________________________________________________________________

What recording system would be best?

__________________________________________________________________________

Write another sample Target Behavior here:

__________________________________________________________________________

Current Target Behavior: Suzi will initiate her on topic and spontaneous language in a small or large group setting to a minimum of 3 times per 30-min period.

What do you need to know?

__________________________________________________________________________

What recording system would be best?

__________________________________________________________________________

Write another sample Target Behavior here:

__________________________________________________________________________

Developed by M. Fallon (2010) for use in EDI 413, Introduction to Special Education, College at Brockport, State University of New York.

Interval / Time Sampling Sheet

Name: _____________________________________

Date: ______________________________________

Observer: __________________________________

Setting: ____________________________________

Time Started: ________________________________

Time Ended: ________________________________

Interval Length: _____________________________

 

Behavior / Interval 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
1. Target Behaviors 2. Occurrences 3. No. of Intervals Recorded 4. Percentage Occurrence

(e.g., 2/3 X 100 = 67%)

A. A. A. A.
B. B. B. B.
C. C. C. C.
D. D. D. D.
E. E. E. E.

Event Recording Sheet

Name: _____________________________________

Date(s): ____________________________________

Observer: __________________________________

Setting: ____________________________________

Time Started: ________________________________

Time Ended: ________________________________

Target Behavior: _____________________________

Date / Time Interval Occurrences Comments
 

 

 

 

 

Latency Recording Sheet

Name: _____________________________________

Date(s): ____________________________________

Observer: __________________________________

Setting: ____________________________________

Time Started: ________________________________

Time Ended: ________________________________

Target Behavior: _____________________________

Date / Time Interval Delivery of SD Response Initiation Latency
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Duration Recording Sheet

Name: _____________________________________

Date(s): ____________________________________

Observer: __________________________________

Setting: ____________________________________

Time Started: ________________________________

Time Ended: ________________________________

Target Behavior: _____________________________

Date / Time Interval Time Started Time Ended Duration

Behavior Intervention Plan Data Sheet

Client: _____________________________________

Therapist: __________________________________

Date: ______________________________________

Background Information and History (e.g., age, diagnosis, previous treatment, etc.):

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

Behavior defined:

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

Type of assessment conducted and summary of results:

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

Functional hypothesis identified:

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

Intervention:

  • Antecedent-based intervention: ___________________________________________
  • Function-based replacement behavior: _____________________________________
  • Function-based reinforcement: ___________________________________________
  • Function-based treatment: _______________________________________________
  • Reactive procedures: ____________________________________________________
  • Rationale and justification for the intervention components selected:

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

Notes:

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

Performance Feedback Training Data Sheet

Trainer: ____________________________________

Client: _____________________________________

Situation: ___________________________________

Date: ______________________________________

Skill being taught: ____________________________

Description of Skill: ___________________________

Model: ____________________________________

Training criteria: ____________________________

Step

On Each Trial Record

Ø

Comments

1 2 3 4
5 6 7 8
9 10 11 12

 

1 2 3 4
5 6 7 8
9 10 11 12

 

1 2 3 4
5 6 7 8
9 10 11 12

1 2 3 4
5 6 7 8
9 10 11 12

 

1 2 3 4
5 6 7 8
9 10 11 12

 

Functional Assessment Training Materials

Cipani, E., & Schock, K. M. (2011). Functional behavioral assessment, diagnosis, and treatment: A complete system for education and mental health settings (2nd ed.). New York, NY US: Springer Publishing Co.

Ditrano, C., & National Professional Resources, Inc. (2010). FBA and BIP: Functional Behavioral Assessment & Behavior Intervention Plan. Port Chester, NY: National Professional Resources, Inc.

Filter, K. J., & Alvarez, M. (2012). Functional behavioral assessment: A three-tiered prevention model. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Glasberg, B. A. (2006). Functional behavior assessment for people with autism: Making sense of seemingly senseless behavior. Bethesda, MD: Woodbine House.

Iwata, B. A., Wallace, M. D., Kahng, S., Lindberg, J. S., Roscoe, E. M., Conners, J., Hanley, G. P., Thompson, R. H., & Worsdell, A. S. (2000). Skill acquisition in the implementation of functional analysis methodology. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 33, 181-194.

O’Neill, R. E., Albin, R. W., Storey, K., & Horner, R. H. (2015). Functional assessment and program development (3rd Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Repp, A. C., & Horner, R. H. (1999). Functional analysis of problem behavior: From effective assessment to effective support. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub. Co.

Steege, M. W., Watson, T. S., & Watson, T. S. (2009). Conducting school-based functional behavioral assessments: A practitioner’s guide. New York: Guilford Press.

Witt, J. C., & Beck, R. (1999). One-minute academic functional assessment and interventions: “can’t” do it— or “won’t” do it? Longmont, CO: Sopris West.

Content Sources

Applied Behavior Analysis Textbooks:

Alberto, P. A., & Troutman, A. C. (2013). Applied behavior analysis for teachers. Boston: Pearson.

Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. I. (2007). Applied Behavior Analysis (2nd Ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Columbus, Ohio.

Fisher, W. W., Piazza, C. C., & Roane, H. S. (2013). Handbook of applied behavior analysis. S.l.: Guilford.

Kazdin, A. E. (2013). Behavior modification in applied settings. Long Grave, Ill: Waveland Press.

Madden, G. J., Dube, W. V., & American Psychological Association. (2013). APA handbook of behavior analysis. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Martin, G., & Pear, J. (2011). Behavior modification: What it is and how to do it (9th Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

Matson, J. L. (2012). Functional assessment for challenging behaviors. New York, NY: Springer.

Mayer, G. R., Sulzer-Azaroff, B., & Wallace, M. (2012). Behavior analysis for lasting change. Cornwall-on-Hudson, NY: Sloan Pub.

Miltenberger, R. G. (2012). Behavior modification: Principles and procedures. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Sarafino, E. P. (2012). Applied behavior analysis: Principles and procedures for modifying behavior. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Sturmey, P. (2007). Functional analysis in clinical treatment. Amsterdam: Academic Press.

Vargas, J. S. (2013). Behavior analysis for effective teaching. New York: Routledge.

Applied Behavior Analysis Syllabi

http://www.abainternational.org/constituents/educators/syllabus-bank/search-by-topic.aspx

BACB© task list

http://www.bacb.com/index.php

Research and Reviews of Research

Bloom, S. E., Iwata, B. A., Fritz, J. N., Roscoe, E. M.,& Carreau, A. B. (2011). Classroom application of a trial-based functional analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44, 19-31.

Hanley, G. P., Iwata, B. A., & McCord, B. E. (2003). Functional analysis of problem behavior: A review. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 36, 147-185.

Multi-Media Formats to Teach Functional Assessment

DVD/Computer Software

Functional behavioral assessment: An interactive training module (Liaupsin et al., 2006)

Behavior Intervention Planning (Scott et al.,2001)

Functional analysis: A guide for understanding challenging behavior (Balan, Worsdell;, & Cuvo, 2005—review by Carr & Fox, 2009)

Simulations in Developmental Disabilities (Desrochers, 2004)

Examples of Possible Research Articles for FACT

Ing, A. D., Roane, H. S., & Veenstra, R. A. (2011). Functional analysis and treatment of coprophagia. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 151-155.

Ishuin, T. (2010). Linking brief functional analysis to intervention design in general education settings. The Behavior Analyst Today, 10, 47-53.

Najdowski, A. C., Wallace, M. D., Penrod, B., Tarbox, J., Reagon, K., & Higbee, T. S. (2008). Caregiver-conducted experimental functional analyses of inappropriate mealtime behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 41, 459-465.

The authors of this textbook have based Instruction in Functional Assessment on current and seminal research literature. We have made every effort to reference materials to the originators of the primary research. In some cases, we have extended and adapted the research information to be more student-friendly. This means that the audience of college students and pre-professionals may more easily understand how to implement the research into the process of FA and the practice of FA performance skills. It has been our intent throughout the textbook to uphold all aspects of copyright in an ethical and legal manner.

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Chapter 7: Resources by Marcie Desrochers and Moira Fallon is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.